Primary Education As part of undivided India, it is difficult to say when the formal introduction of primary education into the geographical boundary of Bangladesh began. At the time of the creation of the Rigveda, that is, about 6 years ago, the seeds of formal education were planted in the subcontinent which has changed to the present state of the world.
In the first phase of formal education, there was no clear boundary between primary and secondary levels. Therefore, although it is difficult to describe elementary education at that time, it is possible to construct a historical background of primary education in the subcontinent based on relevant information.
At that time, the main goal of education was to improve the soul. All that was required was the pursuit, though, and self-control. According to historians, there was a special kind of elementary education in the country during the Vedic period.
Directorate of Primary Education
According to this idea, education was also practiced in the pre-Vedic period but it was temple-centered. Only the priests had the right to practice knowledge, and they were mainly taught about worship. Besides, there was a system of farming, business, crafts and so on for the betterment of the world.
However, with the creation of Vedas in this subcontinent, Aryan teachings began and this teaching of the Vedic period was called ‘Vedic education’. In the early Vedic period, education in this country was mainly religious and school was meant for the gurus. At that time, Brahmacharya or student life was divided into five levels.
The education period was 12 years in a row. In the first stage, children started at the age of 5 or started clinging to their hands. It was the cornerstone of elementary education. After qualifying for primary education, the Guru adopted him as a disciple, with affection for his son as a member of the family.
Judging by the age and appropriateness of the disciple, the Guru used knowledge of the spiritual theory available to the disciples. In this way, the disciples would later hand over the enlightened knowledge to a similarly capable person. In the beginning, academics were stored as one family resource. Later, students coming from outside came to possess similar theories. As a result, various branches of Vedas began to expand as well.
Ancient times Primary Education
Although theology is initially family oriented in the form of a psalm, gradually the psalms become different and complex as different training centers or schools are set up in different places to train the priests for teaching (BC-1-6 BC). Although the education system of the Vedic period was not very well organized, the use of the words, proverbs, ideas, etc.
in the activities, culture, the language of the era proved that the then education system was much better than other countries. However, among them, only Brahmins had the right to study religion, philosophy, arts, science, and social institutions, etc. and they were the most prominent in society. In the Vedic period, Mahabharata and Ramayana were composed.
After the Vedic period, the Brahmanical period came. The era began around 9 BCE Not only the priesthood, but the ‘truth inquiry’ and the teaching of this era was intended. The Brahmanical education system, like the early Vedic education, was founded on Vedic thought and philosophical doctrine, but this education was much better than before. Education was devoted to the need to know about the rules of governing the soul, birth, and death of the original human beings of the universe.
This teaching was called ‘Brahmanical education’. At that time, the deep meditative sages who sought the knowledge were served in harmony. Others in the family listened to it intently. The teaching of the Rishi family likely originates from the Brahmanical teachings.
ancient education system
Such education can be referred to as the primary stage of education at that time. Moreover, to initiate a student’s life in the Brahmanical education system, ‘Upanayana’, ie the Guru, was taken to the Guru for education. The children lived in the gurus from the age of five to twelve years. Oral teaching was more prevalent at that time.
The scholars have expressed different views about the age at which colonization or student life begins. Because the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, and Vaishyas had separate rules for the deputation of their children.
In comparison, the Brahmin children enjoyed more facilities in education than the Kshatriya and Vaishya children. Although the teaching methods have improved by eliminating these disparities over time, society has never approved the education system of the children of the poor class at that time.
In the Brahmanical age, education was divided into two sciences – apology and parasitism. Theology was confined to the boundaries of memorizing the Vedas, but there was no emphasis on the realization of the meaning of the Vedas.
DPE Education History
On the other hand, the importance of understanding the meaning of Vedas and acting accordingly in Paravidya. Even at that time education was concentrated and the curriculum was determined by the gurus.
Apart from the ashram of the forest dwellers, home-schoolers used to engage in teaching in public or the locality. If the number of house-teachers increased in a particular locality, the town would have great consequences.
Due to this, afterward, the center of education was established in various parts of the undivided subcontinent besides the gurudwara. The ancient Hindu teachings can be traced back to the Navadvip, Vikramashil, Pakistan, in West Bengal, India.
Buddhist education came after the era of Brahminical education. Buddhists considered ignorance to be a sin, and they believed that education was the only way to forgive sins. The main subject of Buddhist education was the acquisition of knowledge about enlightenment, health formation, devout philosophy, medical science, etc.
What is DPE Bangladesh?
The Buddhist educational system under the leadership of Gautam Buddha in India in the sixth century BC was very generous and universal. Most of the Buddhist teachings were monastic. These monasteries served as primary education. Up to 8 years of age, Buddhist children used to study in the fathers’ houses. This was called the preparation for early entry into formal education.
At the age of 8, he was sent to a Buddhist monastery for formal education. For this purpose, he had to shave his head and face the scholar as an admission examiner in a special cloak. This early ceremony of entering the Buddhist Sangha was called Prabhjaya (initiation).
After receiving admission, the infant gets the title of surrender. In Buddhist education, usually, no one under the age of 8 could take initiation or initiation. However, education in the Buddhist system was open to all.
Here, all the Brahmins, Kshatriyas, Vaishyas and Shudras, regardless of the rich or poor, had access. Thus, democracy and universalism were some of the characteristics of the Buddhist system of education. Besides, the quality of socialization also developed among the many students who studied together.
What is our primary education system?
Equal importance was then placed on both writing and reading techniques. The historical background of elementary education in the Buddhist system provides much inference from the description of the Chinese traveler Huen-sang (d. 629-645) i-Tseing (d. 627-687). Huyen Tsang Conaujraj came to India during the reign of Harshavardhana (d. 606-684 AD).
Describing the teachings of that era, he said that at that stage, the students were allowed to read a basic book called Sindam or Siddhartna (that is, attain your fulfillment), consisting of Sanskrit letters and syllables composed of vowels and consonants. At the end of this booklet, the student was introduced to five science disciplines at the age of seven. These Scriptures are:
- Industrial education
- Medical education
- due to education
- Spiritual education
Thus, there was a necessary curriculum for elementary education to lay the foundation for higher education. Singh traveled to India in the 7th century after Huyen-Tsang. He, too, provides a clear idea of the elementary education of that era.
Primary education in Bangladesh
According to him, at the age of six, students started taking lessons. They had to study a book containing sixty-five letters and three hundred to ten thousand syllables called Siddhartha. At the age of eight, there were 1000 verses of Panini formulated in verse.
And at the age of ten, more in-depth grammar was studied. In this grammar, there were 1,5 verses. At the age of fifteen, the student had to master the dialect of Patanjali, Vidya Vidya, Abhidharmakosha, Jatmakala, and thus the rules for crossing the elementary level of Buddhist education were introduced.
During the Hindu awakening in the fourth century AD, Buddhism declined due to political reasons. After the Pala dynasty, the Sena dynasty of Hindu religion occupied power. As a result, the influence of Buddhist education gradually began to fade, and Hinduism gained prominence in education and rituals.
The medieval Prophet Muhammad’s prophetic achievement and propagation of Islam introduced a renaissance among the Arabs in the 7th century, which, in the next 100 years, motivated the Arab civilization to raise its head in the world. In the 8th century AD, the first Muslims arrived in India through the Indus conquest of Mohammed bin Qasim, who defeated Sindh Raja Dahir.
the primary education system in Bangladesh
Although Muslim rule was established by Mohammed bin Qasim in northwestern India, Muslim rule in Bangladesh began in 1204 with the conquest of Nadia by Bakhtiyar Khalji. At that time, Bakhtiyar Khalji established mosques, mastabas, and madrasas in different parts of the country. Later Muslim rulers of Bakhtiyar Khalji also followed this method of education through mosques, mastabas, and madrasas.
Later Muhammad Ghori (1174-1206), Sultan Iltutmish (1211-36), his daughter Sultana Razia (1236-40), Sultan Nasiruddin (121-5), Sultan Ghiyasuddin Balban (1266-87), all of them received knowledge. Was the source of encouragement. Moreover, devout Muslims and Muslim Pir-Auliyas established mosques, makes, and madrasas in different places of the country at that time.
In the time of the Khalji and Tughluqs, the education of the Muslims, ie the religion of Islam, greatly enhanced and expanded the Arabic education and culture. With the efforts of many rulers of the Middle Ages, the education system continued to flourish and education was spread through mosques, mastabas, and madrasas. Among these, the teachings of Maktab were the primary stage of Muslim education.
Originally from the age of four, he went to Maktab for primary education, but the actual education started at the age of seven. The teaching of obedience to the Qur’an and religion was the primary lesson of Maktab. It was taught with reading, writing, and general accounting methods.
how to improve the education system in Bangladesh
Education is also provided in the schools for Hindu boys and girls. In addition, the elite families of society kept their children educated and provided education for their children. The biography of dervishes and saints was taught at the higher levels of Maktab, Persian poetry and saga. Prayer and religious practices were the minimum education in the Muslim period which was compulsory for all Muslim students.
During the Mughal period, Muslim rulers, Amirs, and umrahs were passionate about education as well as literature. Due to the fact that the official language is Persian, Persian literature was particularly prolific. Basically during the Mughal Emperor Akbar, the education system of the school was much improved and expanded.
At the primary level, he transformed religious education into worldly education, including the teaching of reading, writing, and accounting. During this time, Hindus and Muslims had the opportunity to exchange education and culture, resulting in the emergence of Urdu language in combination with Hindi, Persian, and Arabic. During the Mughal period, there were mastabas for Muslims, madrassas, and schools for Hindus, tolls.
The wealthy people of the society used to establish these educational institutions, collect teachers, donate land, donate money, pay, and donations, etc. That is, educational programs were conducted on the basis of mutual support of the ruling class and society. However, the primary education of the center was mainly directed at the mosque’s ad hoc money, Zakat money, and general donations.
primary level Education System
So it is undoubtedly true that unpaid or almost unpaid primary education was still prevalent in this society at that time. In addition, there was a separate office to assist in the financing and management of state-run educational institutions.
Muslim rule in India was abolished in the mid-eighteenth century, and with the arrival of the missionaries and their efforts, Western education was spread. At Lord Clive’s invitation in 4 AD, missionary Cairnander came to this country and established several charity schools.
In addition, the Marshman known as Srimpuratrayi said. With the combined efforts of Carrie and Ward, the preaching of Christianity began with a new chapter in the field of education in this country.
At Srirampur Mission, there were arrangements for printing books on various subjects like language education, history, geography, science, etc. which were suitable for primary education. Although the main purpose was to preach religion, it taught geography, history, and grammar in the schools at that time.
primary School Education System
Although English is the medium of instruction, they first introduced the advanced teaching and management system through the native language, the impact of which is still noticeable in many areas of the present education system.
Besides, the first ‘Bangla Grammar’ was written by the missionaries. King Rammohan Roy was another strong supporter of the introduction of Western education in this country.
He believed that the need for liberal, advanced and progressive education systems like western education was needed to remove the prejudice of the country and many school colleges were opened in the country during his efforts.
Primary education during the colonial era English rule
During the British colonial period, undivided India was divided into two parts. The East India Company was governed by the first part, and the second part was governed by the English Government. During the early part of the English rule, especially during the East-India Company, there was no progress in primary education in this country.
At that time there was no such financial allocation for the expansion of primary education. Most of the money allocated for education was spent on secondary and higher education. Primary education was entrusted to local autonomous institutions.
However, according to the recommendation of Lord Minto, the English ruler of India in 1813, the then East India Company, with an education charter in the Parliament of England, officially assumed the responsibility of teaching in their area in the subcontinent.
Then according to Article 1 of the Education Charter of 1813, Rs 1 lakh was allocated for foreign education. It was through these treaties that the first funds for education in British India began to be set, the policies set and the creation of new educational systems.
primary school education system in India/Bangladesh
On January 20, 1835, Lord William Bentinck, the great Barot of India, appointed Scottish Adm. William Adam to collect comprehensive and thorough information on the education of Bengal and Bihar.
As a result of his long study, William Adam submitted three descriptions of information about the education system in the country between 1835 and 1838. The first of these reports was related to primary education.
Later in 1844, Lord Hardinge established the ‘Vernacular School’ in the countryside to promote elementary education through the mother tongue, but it gradually disappeared from the competition with English education, which was re-introduced in 1904 by Lord Curzon.
Then in 1854 Sir Charles Wood’s famous ‘Education Proposal’ was published, known as Wood’s Education Proposal. According to this proposal, the designation of ‘Director of Public Instruction’ (DPI) or ‘Director of Public Education’ was established in every province of all India, setting up of a number of primary schools and ‘Normal School’ for the training of teachers.
the primary school education system in 1882
The use of both English and Bengali as mediums for learning resulted in a huge improvement in primary education. In 1882, according to the recommendation of the Indian Education Commission, Lord William Wilson Hunter, primary schools were given the responsibility of administering district boards, municipalities, and non-governmental organizations.
However, the project did not come to fruition later. At that time, there were three types of schools. Namely-
- Primary school
- Secondary school and
- Higher Secondary School.
Of course, there was a provision for teaching English in every school. In 1902, the ‘Guru Training School’ was also established in each sub-division for the training of teachers.
Although various proposals or recommendations regarding education were made after 1902, no clear decision has been made in this regard nor has there been any significant change in the education system.
The ‘Bengal Primary Education Act’ was enacted in 1919, where unpaid education was recommended primarily in the urban areas and later in the villages. Then in 1930, the law on primary education was passed.
Bangladesh Education System in Primary School
According to this law, the basic education for all children in the age group of 6-11 is made unpaid and the term of primary education shall be 4 years. In 1937, the Government of East Bengal submitted a proposal for the improvement of primary education, and according to this proposal, by dividing the four classes of elementary education into two, unpaid elementary education began to spread everywhere.
Government regulations governing this level of education were formulated on March 27, 1940, to keep the primary education dynamic. But in the end, it didn’t work. In 1945, the lower and higher levels of elementary education were replaced by a four-year primary education period, which lasted until the end of English rule.